Here’s a fact that not many people know or even thought to look up. The book of Devarim in the Old Testament derived its name from two separate Greek words. Deutero (2nd in Greek) and Nomos (Law in Greek). The Hebrew word Devarim is what Deuteronomy was truly called and in Hebrew it means (these are the words) but got incorrectly translated to mean 2nd Law.
Does this mean Yahweh gave us a 2nd Law to follow? Nope, it means HE reiterated the Law they already new. What Law did they know? The Law given to them that was already in affect long before Mosheh gave them to the people. Noah knew laws, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob knew the Law..etc…..
Deuteronomy was the book Mosheh wrote while he was dying. Sort of like a dying father, telling his children his last words. Mosheh did not get to go into the promised land. Could you imagine that he literally saved Yahweh’s chosen people from bondage, led them out of Egypt, put them in front of the entrance to the promised land and when he got there he had to sit back and realize he wasn’t going any further?
Deuteronomy is Mosheh appealing to his people with heart felt conviction in hope that they would follow all of Yahweh’s commands given to them. That is why Mosheh lists the 10 commandments again. The “basics” if you will. Mosheh never once says there are only 10 commandments and he never said we only have to follow 10 commandments. The Israelites already knew ALL OF THE COMMANDS. They were given the commands in Genesis, Exodus, and Leviticus, and a few in Numbers… They received them from Mosheh because he was the intermediary the Israelites requested as the Israelites were afraid to talk to Yahweh directly. Mosheh knew during his dying days that the future of the Nation of Israel, called the children, rested on their acceptance of Yahweh’s Law given to him. Mosheh knew the Israelites had to hear the message one more time in shortened form as he was running out of time to teach. They just spent 40 years in the desert while Mosheh tried to convince them of Yahweh’s promise. At this point it was imperative that Mosheh spent his dying days giving Yahweh’s promise to the people one more time.